Voltaire - Candide (Summary)

"Candide: or, Optimism" - This is the first work by Voltaire that I have read. Voltaire was fleeting covered in our school history as one of the critical influences for the French Revolution. This story is about Candide, a young man who is thrown out of a castle and his adventures as he travels wherever his fate takes him.

The story begins with Candide living in the castle in Westphalia. Alongside is the baron's daughter Cunégonde and their tutor Pangloss among others. Pangloss is an ardent believer in Leibniz philosophical thought that teaches that this is the "best of all possible worlds" and "all is for the best". Candide is attracted to Cunégonde and they are caught kissing one day. The baron throws Candide out of the castle. Candide roaming around is caught up in a brutal war between two armies and is conscripted. Nearly executed, he escapes to Holland where he meets Jacques and by chance Pangloss (who is sick and in bad shape). Jacques takes both of them in and cares for them. Pangloss revels that the castle was destroyed in the wars and everybody was killed. Candide mourns the loss of his beloved. Traveling to Lisbon, Jacques is subsequently drowned while saving someone. Pangloss stops Candide from rescuing him saying that this harbor was created for him to drown and provides an optimistic commentary of their situation. They both are captured by the inquisitors and condemned. Candide is flogged and Pangloss is hanged. Left to his state, an old lady leads Candide to a house where he meets Cunégonde who reveals her terrible escape from near death in the castle. She is now owned by a merchant and an church official who take turns to her company. Candide slays both men and escape to Americas with Cunégonde and the old woman. During the voyage, the old woman reveals her unimaginable horrors that she had faced. On reaching Americas, in Buenos Aires, Cunégonde gets separated from him. Candide escapes with his valet (Cacambo) as he is being pursued. They together face countless adventures (wars, cannibalistic tribes) until they reach El Dorado. In this fabled land of unimaginable riches and utopia, they stay for a month. But soon Candide longs for Cunégonde. The king of El Dorado provides them with many sheep full of diamonds for their journey back. Candide and Cacambo travel back to Suriname slowly loosing the treasures. At Suriname, he sends Cacambo back to Buenos Aires to buy back Cunégonde and to meet him in Venice while he proceeds to Venice directly. Candide needing a companion for his journey back to Venice hires the services of Martin (who is a Manichean and a believer that the world is inherently evil). The rest of their journey is made over lengthy discourses on philosophy.
But then, to what end," said Candide, "was the world formed?"
"To make us mad," said Martin.
"Do you think," said Candide, "that mankind always massacred one another as they do now? Were they always guilty of lies, fraud, treachery, ingratitude, inconstancy, envy, ambition, and cruelty? Were they always thieves, fools, cowards, gluttons, drunkards, misers, calumniators, debauchees, fanatics, and hypocrites?"
"Do you believe," said Martin, "that hawks have always been accustomed to eat pigeons when they came in their way?"
They reach Venice and wait for Cacambo. Cacambo arrives and tells them that Cunégonde is taken as a slave in Constantinople. They all leave to retrieve her. On the ship, Candide comes across Pangloss (he survived being hanged by inquisitors) working as slave in a ship. Candide buys his freedom. They all reach Constantinople where Candide is united with his beloved. Cunégonde is now ugly and pale shadow of her former glory but Candide still marries her. With whatever diamonds left, Candide buys a farm and they all (Candide,Cunégonde, Martin, Cacambo, Pangloss, the old woman) live together. Eventually boredom catches with them and each is now much more unhappier with their lives. Each of them philosophizing over their state and the turn of events. They go to a dervish to seek answers.
Candide asks "Master, we come to entreat you to tell us why so strange an animal as man has been formed?"
"Why do you trouble your head about it?" said the dervish; "is it any business of yours?"
"But, Reverend Father," said Candide, "there is a horrible deal of evil on the earth."
"What signifies it," said the dervish, "whether there is evil or good? When His Highness sends a ship to Egypt does he trouble his head whether the rats in the vessel are at their ease or not?"
"What must then be done?" said Pangloss.
"Be silent," answered the dervish.
"I flattered myself," replied Pangloss, "to have reasoned a little with you on the causes and effects, on the best of possible worlds, the origin of evil, the nature of the soul, and a pre-established harmony."
At these words the dervish shut the door in their faces.
Confused, they leave for home and on way, they meet an old man who is content selling the fruits of his farm.The old man tells them that his whole family works on their farm and work keeps three great evil as bay - boredom, vice and want. Returning to their home, Candide and all reflected on what the old man said. They decided to work without reasoning as that is the only way to make life bearable. Things start looking up and each one is meaningfully engaged and productive. Though Pangloss still sometimes insisting that see ultimately all turned out to be the best and used to saying
"There is a concatenation of all events in the best of possible worlds; for, in short, had you not been kicked out of a fine castle for the love of Miss Cunégonde had you not been put into the Inquisition; had you not traveled over America on foot; had you not run the Baron through the body; and had you not lost all your sheep, which you brought from the good country of El Dorado, you would not have been here to eat preserved citrons and pistachio nuts."  
"That is all well said, but we must cultivate our garden", answered Candide

The story is very dense in terms of events and story line. Events move fast and episodes of chance meeting of characters and characters narrowly escaping death are far too many to be believable (I do not think it even tries to be a realistic story). The story touches the political and religious climate of early 1700s Europe that was caught in internecine wars, religious persecution, slavery and exploitation all around. The torture and the evil around shows its face over and over again and nowhere does Candide ever gets a chance to redeem his optimism. Slowly his faith in optimism is shredded away and by the end, Candide ignores the Pangloss continued optimism and says that "we must cultivate our garden". The story does not develop any over riding moral tale or theories on human ethics or the nature of evil. It is endless series of adventures with evil and exploitation (and satire thrown in equal measure) that covers the face of the earth and in all classes, be it kings, or clergy or common-folk. Voltaire is very critical of religion (in fact of all religions) and widespread slavery and the incessant wars that the Europe saw. Unimaginable brutality (including sexual violence) is common in the story. At the end, Candide sees through that absurdity of philosophical argument and realizes events will happen on their own accord and what he can do is to work and take responsibility of one-self. Debating over the issues that afflict human condition or having an optimistic outlook does not absolve one from the need for individual responsibility and action. Good may or may not always begets good, but inaction always begets boredom and dissatisfaction. Pangloss belief that evil is part of the larger good and world is in pre-established divine harmony is discredited in endless tale of horror and misfortune. The faith in larger Good, in the benevolent God, in optimism all amounts to nothing. Candide seeing all the misery around him, finds the world anything but harmonious. Any perspective or theory provided, can not and will not solve or even explain the workings of this world. The only way to make sense of this world, is to do the work required of you and enjoy the fruits of your labor.

The Rubaiyat: Quatrain XXXV

I think the Vessel, that with fugitive
Articulation answer'd, once did live,
And merry-make; and the cold Lip I kiss'd
How many Kisses might it take -- and give!

This is the thirty-fifth quatrain of the FitzGerald's Rubaiyat. Again a very very opaque quatrain. The Vessel (that earthen bowl of the previous quatrain), the one who replied with an obscure answer to the poet's questioning. The poet says I think that the vessel once did lived and used to partake in countless merry and frolic. I kissed its cold lip and pondered over the incoherent replies given to me. I wonder how many kisses (like these) will the Vessel give and take. I am curious how many hands will this Vessel pass through.

The Vessel, the earthen bowl of wine was once dust, but was also once live. In Abrahamic religions the belief that God created human from dust is predominant. And human turns to dust once dead. The Vessel might have been human once. In the circle of life and death, dust to dust will keep going on and in each life of these countless lives, I will always keep looking for answers beyond myself but the only answers I get are at best incomprehensible.

Translation - Zamanaah Sakt Kaam-Aazaar Hai (Ghalib)

zamaanaah sakht kam-aazaar hai bah jaan-e-asad
vagarnah hum to tavaqqau ziyaadah rakhte hain

Line 1/2 - The age is rigidly lacking in torment, on the life of Asad I swear. Otherwise, we were expecting for more. The poet says, I swear by my life - the torment and the tyranny is lacking the hardness. Otherwise I was hoping for more. The age has delivered rigidly less torment. The juxtaposing of sakht (rigid or painful) and kam-azaar (less of pain) makes it a nice figure of contrast (an oxymoron) - 'painfully painless'. Such is the misery of the poet, even after seeing all this and going through all this, he swears that he was expecting more pain in his life but the life seemed like painfully painless. Coming this far in life and seeing the apathy and rebuke of the beloved (earthy or supernal), I swear I was expecting much more pain.

Meaning of difficult words -
zamaanaah = age, period
sakht -  hard, rigid
kam-aazaar - lacking in torment, less annoyance
bah jaan-e-asad = on life of asad
vagarnah = otherwise
tavaqqau = expectation

Borges - Dreamtigers

In my childhood I was a fervent worshiper of the tiger—not the jaguar, that spotted "tiger" that inhabits the floating islands of water hyacinths along the Parana and the tangled wilderness of the Amazon, but the true tiger, the striped Asian breed that can be faced only by men of war, in a castle atop an elephant. I would stand for hours on end before one of the cages at the zoo; I would rank vast encyclopedias and natural history books by the splendor of their tigers. (I still remember those pictures, I who cannot recall without error a woman’s brow or smile.) My childhood outgrown, the tigers and my passion for them faded, but they are still in my dreams. In that underground sea or chaos, they still endure. As I sleep I am drawn into some dream or other, and suddenly I realize that it’s a dream. At those moments, I often think: This is a dream, a pure diversion of my will, and since I have unlimited power, I am going to bring forth a tiger.
Oh, incompetence! My dreams never seen to engender the creature I so hunger for. The tiger does appear, but it is all dried up, or it’s flimsy-looking, or it has impure vagaries of shape or an unacceptable size, or it’s altogether too ephemeral, or it looks more like a dog or bird than like a tiger.

The is the complete story of Borges's Dreamtigers. How I wish to be The Maker, even better than the Maker. In my dreams I can be one. I want to dream of things more subtle and more grander than the real. But see how miserable do I fail. Instead of a tiger, I do not know what I have dreamed. With my failing sight and spirit, I have brought life to an apparition. A spectre of the real that is not capable of anything. Of not even existing!

The Rubaiyat: Quatrain XXXIV

Then to this earthen Bowl did I adjourn
My Lip the secret Well of Life to learn:
And Lip to Lip it murmur'd--"While you live
Drink!--for once dead you never shall return."

This is the thirty-fourth quatrain of the FitzGerald's Rubaiyat and the quatrain does not give itself easily to interpretation. The poet holding the earthen bowl (made of mud and full of his favourite wine) is just about to drink from it. But then he stops and ponders over it. Holding it close to his lips, he seeks from the bowl, to reveal the secret (a well being the store of) of life. My lips want to learn that secret knowledge of our short lives. And the lip (the rim of the bowl) murmured to my lips, that don't worry about it. Drink and enjoy while you are alive - for once you are dead, one shall never return. One has this one life only to live for and while one has it, one should live it fully for once it ends it gone forever never to return!

Photo Of The Day

Kiama, NSW

Carrington Falls, NSW

Albert Camus - The Plague (Summary)

I just completed reading Albert Camus work - The Plague. This is the second book by Camus that I have read after his best know work 'The Stranger'. The Plague is a story of the plague that reaches epidemic levels before dying out in small coastal town Oran in French colonial territory of Algeria. It chronicles the lives of people caught up in that quarantined city and narrates the lives of doctors, lovers, trapped tourists and ordinary day people in-midst of the horrible tragedy.

The novel starts with occasional dying out of rats in Oran. Soon thousands of rats start dying, leading to panic and hysteria in the city. The civic authorities unaware of the seriousness of the situation start half-hearted measures. In some days, human deaths follow. Rieux (the main character) is convinced that plague is taking hold of the town. As more people die, the authorities start desperate measure and the town is sealed off. No one can enter or leave the town and all other services are restricted. These measures have an effect of an exile on the citizens who feel as if trapped and isolated. Rieux is friends with Rambert (a journalist who was visiting Oran but is trapped in the city now), Tarrou (a vacationer), Paneloux (the town priest), Cottard (a former criminal who attempted suicide but is smuggling goods now) and Grand (a ageing civil servant obsessed with composing a perfect sentence). Rieux's wife is under treatment in a difference city for some grave illness. The book accounts for the feeling of isolation that is all pervasive and the despair that gives rise to emotional collapse. Paneloux using masterly oration chides people that this plague is God's will and its time for all to turn to church. Tarrou comes up with the idea of the health teams that will aid the civic authorities. Rieux and Grand joins him in these teams. Rambert initially desperate to flee the city (to be with his wife in Paris), later feeling ashamed, joins these health teams. Paneloux also joins. As the situation worsens, even more desperate measures follow. People are shot while fleeing, mass funerals are conducted and occasional looting happens. Rieux and the health teams work tirelessly. Slowly as the winter chill starts, the plague starts to loosen its grip over the city but not before Paneloux and Tarrou die of it. Grand is infected but makes a surprise recovery. The town's quarantine is lifted. Cottard is arrested for his past crimes and Rambert is reunited with his wife. Rieux is informed that his sick wife is dead while Grand goes back to composing his sentence.

The storyline is fairly straightforward. It is story of lives of people who got caught up in the epidemic sweeping the town. As with situation, you have all kind of people behaving in all kind of ways. Some turn to God, others to crime and fatalism, some to a higher purpose and others rise to the occasion and do what is correct. The book makes no notion about what is correct and what was wrong. It is a narration of events filled with narrator's point of view. The theme of separation from either the loved ones or from one's daily habit is recurring throughout the book. This feeling of separation leads to hopelessness pervading everyday lives were people now attempt to live the moment as it comes and not looking out for the hopes of future for the exile could be endless. Besides their thoughts, their personal freedom (like the beaches that they enjoyed previously) also gets restricted. Absurdity of human life (on which Camus writes repeatedly), the idea of a absent Benevolent and rational God or that human lives having any higher purpose is the other prominent idea of the book. The plague is the irrational executioner that will come after anyone irrespective of who they are how they live their lives. The lack of control over our lives and our destiny, the randomness of life and death. In all this, death and suffering however absurd they might be seem is the only certainty that awaits us all. And in this constant overhang, one has to live life and give meaning to life by living it. Life is not sacred, the act of living is sacred and worth fighting for, even in the face of insurmountable plague. Another aspect of the story was that of health teams and even tough they did not achieve much, but the resistance they offered was worth it, not for some grandiose idea of heroism or bravery but for a simple fact that it was a noble struggle and defiance against death. For even a rat when pushed to a corner, will fight it out/ We for all the 'isms' and spirit, can definitely accomplish more.

Translation - Main Unhein Chhedun Aur Kuch Naa Kahen (Ghalib)

main unhein chhedun aur kuch naa kahen
chal nikalte jo mai piye hote

qahar ho yaa bala ho, jo kuch ho
kash ki tum mere liye hote

meri qismat mein gham gar itna tha
dil bhi ya rab kai diye hote

aa hi jaata woh raah par ‘ghalib’
koi din aur bhi jiye hote

Line 1/2 - I would tease her, and she would not say a thing! She would have started (begun) if she has drunk wine. The poet says I would tease my beloved, but she would not complain. She did not say a word. And another time, she started (abusing me) when she was drunk. As if the poet is disappointed by not hearing the abuse from his beloved when he teases her, he recalls that had she been drunk, the response would have been a lot different.

Line 3/4 - Whether you are a catastrophe or you are a disaster, whosoever you are. I wish that you were for me. The poet says, I will accept you as my destiny/fate irrespective of what you are. If you are a terrible calamity, or if you are a disaster. What ever you are, I wish that you were my destiny. My longing and love will hold on and soothe out the raging disposition that you are. I will be the shield that would willingly and happily take all the heat and no one else has to know or suffer.

Line 5/6 - In my destiny, there was so much grief. Oh God!, if only you had me number of hearts too!. The poet says that in my life there is so much grief and misery, that I ask You for if you could indeed have given me number of hearts as well like the number of griefs you have given me. One heart is not enough to contain so much grief, it is overwhelmed.

Line 7/8 - Would have come around for sure, Ghalib! if had lived for some days more. The poet says that she could have come around (be persuaded by) ultimately. If only you would have lived for some days more. You died a bit early (maybe the lover killed himself in a haste for if he could have waited, things would have sorted out)

Meaning of difficult words -
mai = wine
qahar = catastrophe
bala = disaster

The Rubaiyat: Quatrain XXXIII

"Then to the rolling Heav'n itself I cried,
Asking, "What Lamp had Destiny to guide
Her little Children stumbling in the Dark?"
And--"A blind Understanding!" Heav'n replied.

This is the thirty-third quatrain of the FitzGerald's Rubaiyat. The previous quatrain mentioned about the door which can not be opened and the opaque veil and in their separate spheres the seeker and the seeked realize and diffuse until they are one, whole and indivisible. In this quatrain the poet questions loudly - to the rolling heaven above I implored, asking for the way forward. I begged to show me the way, a lamp to be provided by that hidden hand to her countless little children that are stumbling in the dark unaware. We (the Children) are stumbling in the dark for we do not know much. We do not know why we are here, where we came from, where we are going. We are groping for answers, but there are none to come. And to our prayers, the Heaven's answer is "A blind Understanding!".

Could 'a blind understanding' mean we humbly accept what is happening, even though we do not know why it's happening for we can not see (we are blind to it for it is beyond our realm). We accept what is to to become of us and our lives with the utter understanding that it will happen irrespective and not get too much caught by in the why and how of it. One may not know where he came from, where he is going or what lies ahead in the path or even what his fate and actions lie in front of him. But even as we grope in this darkness, we must see the light (and come to understand) that the essence is to live and live it fully.

Translation - Hoon Garmi-e-Nishat-e-Tasavvur Se Naghma-Sanj (Ghalib)

This is one of ghalib's unpublished ghazals that is not part of his diwan. The verses have been taken from here and here.

mumkin nahin ki bhool ke bhi aarmeedah hoon
mein dasht-e-gham mein aahoo-e-sayyaad deeda hoon

hoon dardmand jabr ho ya ikhtiar ho
gaah naala-e-kasheedah, gaah ashk-e-chakeedah hoon

jaan lab pe aayi toh bhi na sheereen hua dahan
az-bas-ki talkhi-e-gham-e-hijraan chasheedah hoon

ne subbha se alaaqa na saaghar se waastah
main ma’ariz-e-misaal mein dast-e-buriida hoon

hoon khaaksaar par na kisi se hai mujhko laag
na daana-e-fitaada hoon na daam chidaah hoon

jo chahiye nahin wo meri qadr-o-manzilat
main yusuf-e-be-qeemat-e-awwal khareedah hoon

hargiz kisi ke dil mein nahin hai meri jagah
hoon main kalaam-e-naghz vale naa-shuneedah hoon

ahl-e-vara’a ke halqe mein har-chand hoon zaleel
par ‘aasiyon ke zumre mein main bar-guzeedah hoon

hoon garmi-e-nishat-e-tasavvur se naghma-sanj
main andaleeb-e-gulshan-e-naa-aafariidah hoon

paani se sag-gazeedah dare jis tarah asad
darta hoon aaine se ki mardum-gazeedah hoon

Line 1/2 - It is not possible that even by mistake, I would be relaxed and comfortable. In the forest of grief, I am like a deer who has just seen the hunter. The poet says of life's never ending trials and tribulations that even by a chance its not possible that he is at ease and satisfied. He is like a vulnerable deer who has just caught sight of a hunter and is running scared in the forest. I am too similarly caught up in this forest of life where grief and anxiety never seem to be far from me.

Line 3/4 - I am anxious and distressed, be it by force or be it by my free will. Sometimes, it is a drawn-out (stretched) lament, sometimes it is the tears oozing out from my eyes. The poet says I am always in the state of distress, sometimes it is because the misery is forced on me and other times, I choose to be distressed. Sometimes its like a long drawn lament and sometimes like tears oozing out of his eyes.

Line 5/6 - Even on the verge of death, still there is no sweetness in the mouth. To the extent that (in as much as), the bitterness of the grief of separation is what I am tasting instead. The poet says that death used to be a sweet elixir that would take away all griefs and sorrow that life had to offer. But instead on the verge of death, I have this bitter taste due to the grief of separation. Even death is not sweet!

Line 7/8 - I have neither affinity with the rosary, nor any association with the wine. I am (have the features) of such an example, for I have amputated hands. I can choose neither the rigors of piety nor can I can indulge in the pleasures of the world. I am like a person with no hands (who can neither hold rosary nor a glass of wine) who has got no choice to indulge in either of them.

Line 9/10 - I may be humble and lowly (down amid the dust), but I do not have any liking (or animosity) with anyone. 'laag' is very broad word with multiple variations of meaning. What is to be meant here is not very clear. I am neither the scattered seed nor I am the net (maybe seeds laid for the trap) for catching the sparrow. The poet says that he is among the dust, neither loving or hating others. He will not be like scattered grain that will be food for birds nor will he be like a trap for them. I will live life alone and humbly, without the need of friendship or enmity or doing good or harm to others.

Line 11/12 - What it needs to be, it is not my value and and position. I am like Joseph, the one who as bought by the first bidder for practically free. In Biblical stories, Joseph was initially sold as a slave, but is destined to be a prophet in later life. The poet says my value and position and rank is not what is needs to be (my true worth is not being valued correctly). I am like Joseph who was auctioned for pennies but later rose to be a prophet.

Line 13/14 - On any account, in someone's heart there is no place for me. I am such a wonderful composition, but which is not yet heard. The poet says there is no place of me in anyone's heart. The use of 'hargiz' makes it sound forceful as if the poet says that its not even possible for anyone to place him in their hearts. The reason is because, even though I am unique and very collect-able, but no one has the capacity or intellect to understand me. I am like a song, they do not hear.

Line 15/16 - In the circle full of religious and pious people, although I feel disgraced. But in the company of sinners, I am the chosen one. The poet says even if he is in the pious circle, he finds himself shamed and disgraced (probably because the pious are not giving him the respect he deserves). But in the company of sinners, I am the chosen one. It is the sinners that know my true worth.

Line 17/18 - These are the best lines of the ghazal in my opinion. I sing with the heat (excitement) of the delights (joy) of the things I imagine and foresee. I am the nightingale of the garden that is yet to be born. The poet says I am a singer of songs that are evoked by the excitement of the happiness of the things I imagine. I am the nightingale of a garden of the future when the things I imagine would be possible and the future is bright and happy. There could be another interpretation possible. Say the poet imagined a heaven on earth so profound that he breaks into a song unprovoked. It was such a nice melodious tune that the poet says, for a nightingale to even compete with him, it would have to be singing in so majestic a garden that it has yet not been created.

Line 19/20 - O! Asad, like the dog-bitten is scared of water. Scared I am of the mirror, for I am people-bitten. The poet says like someone who is bitten by a infected dog (rabies which causes the victims to develop fear of water) and is afraid of water, I am scared of the mirror for I am people-bitten. When I see my reflection in the mirror, I can't help noticing my disappointment with my relationship with the other person. I am not good at keeping people around me happy and on seeing myself in the mirror, I realize the loneliness staring blankly at my face.

Meaning of difficult words -
aarmeedah = comfort/relaxed
dasht = forest
aahoo = deer
sayyaad = hunter
deeda = sight
dardmand = anxious, depressed
jabr = force
ikhtiar = right, free to choose
gaah = sometimes
naala = cry, lament
kasheedah = stretched
ashk = tears
chakeedah = oozing out
sheereen = sweet
dahan = mouth
az-bas-ki = in as much as, to the extent that
talkhi = bitterness, acrimony
hijraan = seperation
chasheedah = tasting
subbha = rosary
alaaqa = to be attached, dependence, affinity
saaghar = goblet of wine
ma’ariz = features to identify something
misaal = example
bareeda = amputated, cut
khaaksaar = humble, lowly
laag = affection, attachment, enmity
fitaada = scattered
daam = net, trap
chidaah = sparrow
qadr = value
manzilat = dignity, rank, position
yusuf = joseph
be-qeemat = without value, free
awwal = first
hargiz = on no account, never
kalaam = composition
nagz = excellent, wonderful
shunidaah = to be heard
vale = but, yet
ahl-e-vara’a = world of pious/religious people
halqe = circle
har-chand = although
zaleel = shamed, disgraced
‘aasiyon = sinners
zumre = in company
guzeedah = selected, chosen
nishat = joy, happiness
tasavvur = imagination, idea
sanj = measurer, examiner, weigher
naghma-sanj = measurer/weigher of songs (i.e. singer)
andaleeb = nightingale
aafariidah = created
sag = dog
mardum = men, people
gazeedah = bitten

The Rubaiyat: Quatrain XXXII

There was a Door to which I found no key:
There was a Veil past which I could not see:
Some little Talk awhile of ME and THEE
There seemed--and then no more of THEE and ME.

This is the thirty-second quatrain of the FitzGerald's Rubaiyat. The poet says that he has come across a Door for which he has found no key and there is a Veil past which he can not see. The locked door and the veil are obstructing his path and his vision. There are things we can not see or fathom and mysteries which we can not unlock. There is this barrier that separates "we" from "You" [The Divine] which we can not seem to transcend. We live of[talk] our lives with all its joys and tribulations with this notion of separate spheres of we and You. All our experiences and life moments are nothing but a constant exchange between the Self and the Divine. But if we were to look harder, we would realise that there is actually no veil, no barrier. In fact, there is no ME and no YOU. We are part of the Divine.We are in midst of the Divine. I am You and You are Me. All things, all Beings are part of that Oneness and that Oneness is complete.

Frits Staal - Discovering the Vedas (Summary - II)

This is the second part of the my summary on Frits Staal's book - "Discovering the Vedas". The first part of the summary is here. The first part basically focused on the origin of early Vedic speakers and the time and space in which the Vedas were written. This one is brief gist on Vedas and their context. As with the first part, the summary below is what I have read in the book and I am no Vedic culture expert to deny or confirm any of the ideas that the book puts forward.

By the end of first part we had come to a conclusion that early Vedic settlers came from somewhere in Russian steppes, made a long and arduous journey taking along with them their Indo-European language, myths, fire worship, soma practice and knowledge of horse and chariots. They initially settled in NW India around 1800 BC slowly moving east into the Gangetic plains. The culture was primarily village based, male dominated and ritual driven. It could have been that women (for marriage) would have come from the indigenous population and early Vedic settlers married into indigenous tribes to advance their clan or family's political/societal aims. These indigenous population contributed greatly like the name of tribes which later became the name of Vedic schools (sakhas). Women are not mentioned frequently in early Vedic text. We hear very little about women or their state. There is specifically no mention in Vedas of what was to be later known as "dependence of women" that states that a women's dependence is first on her father, then on her husband and lastly on her sons. This idea was codified much later in the 2nd century AD in the manu-smriti from where is widely took life of its own and could be said to be a seminal event in relatively poor state of women's status in Indian society. Similarly caste began appearing in the later Vedic works and in the post-Vedic dharamsutras and by the time of manu-smriti in 2nd century AD, it was also codified. Though the widely prevailing view is that caste was inherent to Vedic society probably because it fits into the aryan invasion theory whereby the invaders became the higher caste and indigenous tribes the lower status groups. But since in the first part summary, we have concluded that there was no invasion, instead a smaller group of settlers crossed over. The genetic material also goes back 9000 years making the idea that Vedic speakers could fashion a new social order so quickly is far fetched. The idea of attribute caste to Vedic civilization is either to make them easy scapegoat or to make the concept as being divine and foretold by Gods. Rig Veda (RV) mentions broad classes like árya and dása. Possibly árya could have been Vedic settlers and indigenous tribes being dása. But Vedas does mentions something very similar to the current social order. It states in the below lines [bráhman, ksatram, viš] which could relate more to the realm of occupation that groups of people are engaged in rather than a strict societal order. These lines are from RV -

promote the bráhman (language) and promote poetic inspiration,
promote the ksatram (power or dominion) and promote able bodies men
promote the viš (the common people) and promote cows.

These words were to later become brahmin, ksatriya and vaishya which now are the three higher castes (varna). Note that there are only 3 words mentioned[bráhman, ksatram, viš] and RV does not clearly state what could these words mean or if they actually meant social order. Multiple references in later works display no fixed social hierarchy and it looks like order did not matter initially and sometimes these words have no settled meaning or the meaning seems to shift. Also in the Vedas itself, there are references of a united front of brahman-ksatriya against vaishya who may have been indigenous. bráhman was still a flexible term and does not seem to occupy a fixed place in rigid system of classes or caste. That hardening happened much later. In early Vedic sense, varna could have referred to the state of a person like being royalty or learned. RV has no word for social classes but has a word 'varna' which meant color and this word is mentioned only once in RV, on the other hand jati (birth) was not even mentioned in Vedas. In RV's famous purusha sukta,[10.90] is the only place where a four layer social order is mentioned. In this hymn, purusha is a primordial man that is being sacrificed and it assigns the four varnas brahman, rajanya, vaishya and sudra to his mouth, arm, thighs and feet. This is the only place where four layers social order instead of three are used and most linguistics and scholars agree that this sukta(hymn) is a late addition to RV as it does not resemble any other RV myth (in form and diction) and is not in accordance to early Vedic social distinction. Most likely it was added later in RV to give weight and justify the new social order. So what originally started as an order to classify people into árya and dása groups later became three layered (middle Vedic) and then four layered (later Vedic) and then to a complex conundrum of varna and jati (British age) by cooperating priests-royalty combine.   

The book also broadly touches on the Vedas and their context. There are 4 Vedas and each Vedas has four different layers. The core is the samhitas which are verses and mantras, mostly in praise of Gods. The next layer is aranyakas (which literally mean 'produced in forest'). This layer mainly deals with ritual (maybe rituals in the forest as possibly forest are seen as a mysterious place where mantra and ideas originate). The next layer is brahmana which are broad commentaries on many topics. The last layer is called upanishads which is a open category and deals with philosophy and spiritual ideas. The Vedas are not one piece and never composed as one piece. They have constantly evolved over the times. The chief division of Vedas is sakhas(school) from where they originated. Each school goes back to a clan or tribe in a particular area and each sakha would memorize a specific Veda (and all it layers). The Vedic text itself of these sakhas would be slightly different from other schools of same Veda but the difference is minor. Most of these text of these schools have now been lost, but still some survive. In a settled village based Vedic civilization, cattle and cow was the primary means of wealth. Society transformed from a nomadic lifestyle to a village based. Spoke chariot building were specialized skills and the builders had a high place in society. They were called rathakára. RV does not mention them, but taittiriya brahmana states rathakára in line with other three castes. It looks as if the three caste did not have the same meaning in RV as in post Vedic works, rathakára occupied high status in Vedic times before the actual codified caste came into being where it got lost. RV was composed in upper Indus valley and the other three in upper (kuru/pancala) and middle (kosala/videha) courses of the Ganges. In midst of this geographical migration towards east, there is an evolution in Vedic Sanskrit thought and culture besides language. (Early, Middle and late Vedic)

Rig Veda [RV] is the oldest and mostly composed in Indus valley area [Early Vedic period, 1800 - 1200 BC] mostly by clans. The importance of some Gods seem to change within the Vedas itself and some ideas of early RV were discarded by the time the other Vedas were composed. In this sense, we can say the RV was probably most alien with ideas and discourse closer to nomadic culture than to the settled cultures of later Vedas. In RV, there are 12 invocations of varuna, 23 invocations for varuna-mitra, mitra is not only a friend but personification of contract (he is something similar to mithra of iranian religions). These deities have a much smaller cult compared to indra who pervades the RV. In later works, mitra no longer appears. Most likely mitra was part of old folklore of nomads wandering around Asia as mitra is present in Iranian and Mittani religions as well and was discarded later on. Also present in RV is the battle of 10 kings who were tribal chiefs. Bharata won this battle due to mantra power. This was the age of mysterious mantras and sublime language. The indigenous tribes may have also adopted the language partly because of its alleged mantra power. Here language became a tool for political ends. RV emphasized male lineage and the transmission of Vedas was also patrilineal. RV was the world of men, by men, for issues of men. RV is most ancient, venerable, obscure, distant and difficult to understand and easy to misinterpret. The composers of RV composed it mainly for their family and clan and that is why so much remains obscure to outsiders. It started with a smaller set of poems which were gradually expanded. The nomenclature the poem in the Vedas follow a circle.poem.verse. naming convention. The early reciters needed three additional information about each poem - deity, composer, the meter. The most common deities were agni, indra, soma, and though agni & soma were impersonal divinities they were concrete as well and both are ritualized while indra has more personal traits.

The other three Vedas were composed in the Middle Vedic period [1200 - 700 BC]. The heart of Vedic culture had shifted east from the Indus valley to upper Gangetic plains. While RV was more inward looking and mysterious, the other three became more outward looking. Sama Veda come from indigenous sources and most likely from non-Indo-Aryan lineage while Atharva Veda is full with local cults. The RV was the poetic high point of the Vedic culture and by the time Yajur Veda was composed, it looked as if composing Veda becomes routine, like it being part of a job. kuru/pancala is most important kingdom/tribe in this age and Kuruksetra was now the heartland of brahmanical orthopraxy. A section of kuru/pancala compositions from their schools became the three later Vedas. During middle ages, soma was combined with agni into vast complex rituals (both these being material as well as deity). The rituals were huge and tedious and explains why middle Vedic age was not poets but scholars doing mundane stuff. The vision of RV is replaced by pedantry. Vision would return with Upanishads.

Sama Veda [SV] is made from sáman which means chants and it consists entirely of the verses of RV set to music. SV has to be heard as it is more of melody of the same RV verses. Usually the words of first lines of most hymn are carefully selected to fit the melody but the rest of the lines were forced into the same format. The forced words are changed or transformed or embellishments are added which are called stobha which is just a meaningless text. It could be that melodies were earlier sung to a different language before Vedic settlers came to India. In this transformations, phrases were added removed, repeated, changed to make it fit a melody. The core of SV is ritual chants and it exhibits two types of chants - 'to be sung in village' and 'to be sung in forest'. The village ones are accessible while forest/wilderness ones are complex and more powerful. It supports a theory that forest is dangerous and a place full of powerful chants and it point to indigenous origins that were settled long time before. Both parts stressing the village and forest being the two sides of the Vedic life. Atharva Veda [AV] survives in two schools and it mainly consists of sorcery chants, speculative and mystical poems, fragments of rituals and compositions that relate to art of healing. Yajur Veda [YV] deals with the ritual. It is said that YV provides the space for RV and SV to display their beauty. It incorporates RV verses and SV chants in its ritual framework. Yajur Veda created more school then all three Vedas put together as they created the concept of school and the other three Vedas were assigned to a place. Yajur Veda thus become the assigner that will occupy the center.

Later Vedic Period [700 - 300 BC] - In this period, Vedas were refined and reworked and the final canonization of the four Vedas were done. Also during this age, from Yajur Veda, a newer version was extracted and made into white YV and old unrefined one was called as black YV which found refuge in South India. It was called white as it separated mantra and brahmanas portions from the old and thus returning to the purity of RV which consists of poetry only.  Most of the Vedic canon was closed by now. Caste was gaining ascendancy as Vedic culture was becoming caste obsessed and ritual driven. Primarily against a reaction to this caste and ritual over zeal, the reformists ideas like Jainism and Buddhism came to fore in the Indian subcontinent during this age.

What we have discussed above is the mostly the core layer of the Vedas which is the samhitas that are widely read and translatedThere are three more layers [brahmanas, aranyakas  and upanishads] to each of the Vedas. In RV, SV, AV and White YV, the samhitas and brahamans are distinct, while in in Black VY there is this continuous series to which brahmanas, aranyakas  and upanishads are attached. So while all Vedas have the samhitas, brahmanas and the upanishads layer, only RV and YV have the aranyakas layer as well. Both the brahmanas and aranyakas layers are large reservoir of comments, observations and interpretations, stories and speculation but they also seem mostly meaningless. They are huge and inaccessible and can support any theory and most of the times they do not make or convey any sense. Upanishads is the final layer of the Vedas and they are also called as Vedanta (end of Vedas). The end could mean the final piece of writing or it could also be interpreted as the ultimate aim or goal. The literal meaning of the word upanishads means sitting close to the teacher. There are 108 Upanishads of which 12 to 13 are classical which were written first (before 600 BC) and are the most important. The non classical upanishads continued to be added later on. In a broad sense of any society it can be said that humans are bound by ritual and freed by knowledge. In Vedic context, the karma or ritual is brahmanas/aranyakas and jnana or knowledge is upanishads.

This brings us to the end of my write up on this book. I must admit, I haven't read much on very early Indian history so it was a informative read but it has opened up a lot more questions than it has answered. What does the voluminous Vedic literature contain? Is there anything we can deduce or meaningfully understand. What was the significance of such extensive ritual and mysterious mantras? What of caste? How did caste became so central to Indian society?

Borges - On Exactitude in Science

Borges never stops to fascinate me. I just read this ten line story called “On Exactitude in Science” and one can not stop thinking the imagery and the ideas that this story opens up to. Here Borges revisits his favorite theme of real and unreal that is all too frequent in his works. Below is the full text of the story.
. . . In that Empire, the Art of Cartography attained such Perfection that the map of a single Province occupied the entirety of a City, and the map of the Empire, the entirety of a Province. In time, those Unconscionable Maps no longer satisfied, and the Cartographers Guilds struck a Map of the Empire whose size was that of the Empire, and which coincided point for point with it. The following Generations, who were not so fond of the Study of Cartography as their Forebears had been, saw that that vast map was Useless, and not without some Pitilessness was it, that they delivered it up to the Incumbencies of Sun and Winters. In the Deserts of the West, still today, there are Tattered Ruins of that Map, inhabited by Animals and Beggars; in all the Land there is no other Relic of the Disciplines of Geography...
This is such a small piece of work, yet the idea that a map so big that it covers the real. There is no point of reference now if you think of it. All of real is same as all of simulation. The Map is the real and the real is the map. The relationship has been let loose to such an extent that whatever we perceive or sense can easily be from our experiences of our interactions with the model or simulation of the real. The unreal and real lose context, If the unreal is as good as real, then unreal mirrors reality (it can replace reality totally). It is no more unreal. It is the real. In a sense, Map is just a construct. The idea of reality being mirrored to such perfectness that it is no longer a mirror. Then how do you define real? Do you even need real? Maybe it is the real whose tattered ruins lie all around!

Jean Baudrillard describes this in this book "Simulacra and Simulations". Quoted from this book are the two paragraph below..
If once we were able to view the Borges fable in which the cartographers of the Empire draw up a map so detailed that it ends up covering the territory exactly (the decline of the Empire witnesses the fraying of this map, little by little, and its fall into ruins, though some shreds are still discernible in the deserts — the metaphysical beauty of this ruined abstraction testifying to a pride equal to the Empire and rotting like a carcass, returning to the substance of the soil, a bit as the double ends by being confused with the real through aging) — as the most beautiful allegory of simulation, this fable has now come full circle for us, and possesses nothing but the discrete charm of second-order simulacra.
Today abstraction is no longer that of the map, the double, the mirror, or the concept. Simulation is no longer that of a territory, a referential being, or a substance. It is the generation by models of a real without origin or reality: a hyperreal. The territory no longer precedes the map, nor does it survive it. It is nevertheless the map that precedes the territory — precession of simulacra — that engenders the territory, and if one must return to the fable, today it is the territory whose shreds slowly rot across the extent of the map. It is the real, and not the map, whose vestiges persist here and there in the deserts that are no longer those of the Empire, but ours. The desert of the real itself

Translation - Jahaan Tera Naqsh-e-Qadam Dekhte Hai (Ghalib)

jahaan tera naqsh-e-qadam dekhte hain
khayaabaan khaayaaban iram dekhte hain

dil aashuftagan khaal-e-kunj-e-dahan ke
savaidaa mein sair-e-adam dekhte hain

tere sarv-e-qaamat se ek qadd-e-aadam
qayamaat ke fitne ko kam dekhte hain

tamashaa ki ai mahw-e-aaiinah-daari
tujhe kis tamannaa se hum dekhte hain

suraag-e-taf-e-naalah le daagh-e-dil se
ki shab-rau ka naqsh-e-qadam dekhte hain

banaa ke faqeeron ka hum bhes ghalib
tamashaa-e-ahl-e-karam dekhte hain

Line 1/2 - The world, your footsteps do we see. flowerbed over flowerbed, we see paradise. The first word (jahaan) can be interpreted as both world or where. If we consider it as where, then the poet is saying where ever we see your footsteps, we see flowerbed over flowerbed, and one sees paradise. The obvious interpretation being your footsteps are like endless rows of flowerbeds and we see of paradise in them. If we consider the word as world, then we can interpret it as This world, we see as your footprint. And in your footprints, garden upon gardens have come up, and we see paradise. This earth is the paradise becuase You touched it.

Line 3/4 - The heart is distressed/anxious, In the mole at the corner of the mouth. The blackish core, walking around in non-existence we see. This is a very very inaccessible verse. [Pritchett] interprets this as - Those who are distressed by the heart, those who have lost their heart. Those lovers in the mole at the corner of the mouth of the beloved, they see the brackish core of their heart that they lost. And in it, they see non-existence. Skipping this verse as I am unable to translate this into anything meaningful.

Line 5/6 - Your cypress of stature to one man sized height. We see the turmoil of the doomsday less (compared to this). Not a accessible verse either. The poet says seeing your stature (like a tall cypress tree) compared to the height of the normal man, We find the height of turmoil on the doomsday to be less. 'qadd-e-aadam' could also be said as height of Adam (first man) and this would interpret as your cypress of stature compared to Adam's height. When I see you both on the doomsday, and seeing the difference in height between you two, I think less of the height of the turmoil of the doomsday.

Line 7/8 - The spectacle of you so engrossed in holding/looking into a mirror. With what yearning/longing we see you. The poet to his beloved, says the sight of you are so engrossed in the mirror admiring your glow. With what (kind of) longing we look at you. You look so occupied in the mirror and in your innocence of the moment, and my longing for the beloved is like a divine yearning that has no end, no beginning and is Total. 'aaiinah-daari' could also mean bearing the mirror, so maybe the beloved is holding the mirror to me.

Line 9/10 - The evidence or trace of the steam of lamentation from the wounds of the heart. That we look for the footprints of the night traveler. The poet says we see the heat of lament and sorrowful moaning coming out from the wounds of the heart and if you want to find the evidence of such sorrowful release, look for the footprints of the night traveller. The second line could be interpreted in multiple ways. The night traveller could be a thief or robber that had robbed many houses in a single night leaving behind lot of anxious victims. I (for my heart is lost) am like those victims whose houses have been robbed. The other interpretation could be that the night traveller is lost (his confused footprints are all across the town) and he is anxious and agitated and in the same state of distress and unease as the lover.

Line 11/12 - Having put on the disguise of a faqir, O ghalib!. We see the spectacle of the generosity of the people. The poet says I have put on the disguise of the faqir to carefully observe the spectacle of the people-of-generosity. It is impossible to tell who is really generous and who are just show-off generous ('people of generosity' who make loud claims about their deeds). To actually see for myself, I have donned the garb of a faqir so that we can see the spectacle. The use of word 'tamashaa' makes the scene sound as dubious or for show and hence the connotations are to point hypocrisy of those people.

Meaning of difficult words -
naqsh-e-qadam = footprints
khayaabaan = flowerbed
iram = paradise
aashuftagan = distressed
khaal = mole
kunj = corner, lonely spot
dahan = mouth
savaidaa = blackish, the black part of the heart, the heart's core
adam = non-existence, annihilation
sarv = cypress tree (tall in quality)
qaamat = stature, body
qadd-e-aadam = one man height (height of adam)
fitne = turmoil, anarchy
mahw = absorbed, engrossed
daari = looking into (holding/bearing)
taf = vapour, steam
naalah = lamentation, moan
shab-rau = one who walks/travels at night
bhes = disguise
ahl-e-karam = people of charity

The Rubaiyat: Quatrain XXXI

Up from Earth's Centre through the Seventh Gate
I rose, and on the Throne of Saturn sate,
And many Knots unravel'd by the Road;
But not the Knot of Human Death and Fate.

This is the thirty-first quatrain of Fitzgerald Rubaiyat. Before we delve into this quatrain, let's touch upon some ideas that these lines visit. In old world cosmology developed by Greeks from Plato to Ptolemy, the celestial model defined celestial orbits as spheres nested one within the other. These sphere touch the adjacent sphere in either directions. The earth was the centre of the universe and the seven spheres of the Moon, Mercury, Venus, Sun, Mars, Jupiter, and Saturn followed in that order. Saturn was the God of Agriculture in Roman mythology and his reign is shown as Golden Age of peace and bounty. More on celestial spheres can be read here.

The poet says I rose from the earth (the centre of the universe) and visited all the other spheres on my way to the last (seventh) sphere Saturn. On the seventh sphere, I besides, the throne of Saturn God, having travelled all the known spheres and seen all things possible over the years of my life. In midst of my journeys, I have untied my knots (mysteries) and unravelled many puzzles. But I have no answer for the problem of human Fate. I have failed to solve the riddle of human birth, death and destiny. The essence is the same as last two quatrains. I have visited the worlds known and worlds unknown. I have untangled many challenges over these years. But all my experiences and wisdom comes to cipher when trying to answer the questions of human condition.

Video Of The Day

NYTimes has come up with a simple to understand five minute video to explain the science and the method behind the discovery of Gravitational Waves by LIGO. Fascinating watch!

The main article on this topic in nytimes is here

Translation - Kahte Hai Jeete Hain Umeed Pe Log (Ghalib)

ishq taasir se naumeed nahin
jaan-sipaarii sajar-e-biid nahin

saltanate dast-bah-dast aai hai
jaam-e-mai kaatim-e-jamshed nahin

hai tajalli tiriii saamaan-e-wajood
zarra be-partav-e-khurshid nahin

raaz-e-mashooq na rausva ho jaye
varna mar jaane mein kuch bhed nahin

gaardish-e-rang-e-tarab se darr hain
gham-e-mahrumi-e-jaaviid nahin

kahte hai jeete hain umeed pe log
hum ko jeene ki bhi umeed nahin

Line 1/2 - Love is not disappointed by its impression/effect. Surrendering of life is not like a willow tree. The poet says that passion and love is not disappointed by its (lack of) effect. It is still hopeful that it will lead to fruition. Surrendering or sacrificing your life in path of love is unlike a willow tree which does not bear fruit. My love and my sacrifice will lead to success not like the willow tree that grows high and mighty but bears no fruits.

Line 3/4 - The empire has come from hand to hand. The cup of wine is not the seal of Jamshed. This is complicated to interpret. Jamshed the king used to have a special wine cup in which he can see the future. The first lines says that the reign of the empire goes from hand to hand. Hand to hand could mean being passed around by say inheritance (from father to son) or by show of hands (forcefully). So the empire passes from one person to another. But the cup of Jamshed is not the seal of his empire.The fabled cup of Jamshed is not like his seal which will be passed on from one ruler to another. This cup was only Jamshed to be and after him no one will get to have it.

Line 5/6 - This radiance/splendor of yours is the reason for existence. The grain of sand is not without the reflection of the sun. The poet says referring to the God, that your manifestation and splendor is the cause/reason for the existence of everything. The greatness of Him is the reason for anything and everything to exist. Like the minuscule grain of sand that reflects the rays of the sun. Even the countless and unremarkable grains of sand shows His brilliance by reflecting the sun rays and showing that they too are part of His divine workings.

Line 7/8 - The secret of the beloved does not become revealed/exposed. Otherwise there is no secret in dying. The poet says there is no mystery in dying. I would have sacrificed myself any day. The only reason I am no doing so is that my death would expose or reveal the secrets of my beloved and I do not want that to happen. My sudden death will raise questions and people may ultimately link it back to my beloved and some unwanted and unpleasant secrets could be exposed which I do not want. 'Bhed' also in commonplace language means difference. And this gives a dramatically different view. There is no difference in dying. The pain and agony of love makes living same as dying. The only reason I prefer living is that my death (due to the agony of love) will bring disrepute to the my beloved who is secret.

Line 9/10 - I fear from the revolving/turning around of the colors of joy. I have no fear from the sorrow of eternal deprivation. The poet says I am fearful of the slow turning manner of the joy. One moment one think he is happy and slowly the feeling winds down. I fear this slowly turning around of emotions from joy to sadness. I do not fear the grief of living in everlasting neediness or want for one does not get these rhythms of joy and sadness in it. Life of never-ending want is easy to live then one where joy gives way to distressing sorrow. There is another interpretation possible. Suppose these lines are said in a reply to someone as a mild censure - You fear the turning around of joy to sorrow. But not the life of endless want! How come? Do you not know that life of eternal want is many times dreadful than one where joy slowly winds down.

Line 11/12 - They say that people live on hope. For we do not hope even for living. The poet says that people live on hope. As long as they are alive, they are hopeful of something. For them to be alive means to be hopeful, having a hope. But for us, we do not have any hope. Not even hope of living, leave aside living on hope. It a cyclical play of words that come out very well.

Meaning of difficult words -
taasir = impression, effect
sipaarii = surrender, sacrifice
sajar-e-biid - willow tree
dast = hand
kaatim - seal/stamp or finger ring
tajalli = manifestation, splendor, brilliance
tirii = yours
samaane-e-wajood = reason for existence
partav = reflection
khurshid = sun
rusva = dishonored, despondent
bhed = secret, mystery. difference
gaardish = turning round, adversity
tarab = joy
mahrumi-e-jaaviid = eternal deprivation

The Rubaiyat: Quatrain XXX

What, without asking, hither hurried whence?
And, without asking, whither hurried hence!
Another and another Cup to drown
The Memory of this Impertinence!

This is the thirtieth quatrain of FitzGerald's Rubaiyat. The first two lines state, we came hurriedly to this place (here)  from that place without being asked. And we are hurriedly being taken from here to that place, again without being asked. The places where we coming from and going to are not mentioned. Are we going to the same place where we came from, the poet does not tell. These two lines are very similar in theme as the last quatrain where the poet laments over lack of control over life. The next two lines are bit more complex. These can be interpreted as cup after cup of wine is needed to drown the memory or the realization of this human condition. The acknowledgement of human frailty, of lack of control, of places and times unknown and beyond human grasp. The only way to block out these thoughts is to numb your senses by engaging in cups of wine. The poet could also be referring to that he needs cups of wine to overwhelm the feeling of injustice and improper conduct of God in making the human condition as it is.